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Synthetic oil is a synthesis of base oils based on synthetics, as well as additives that give it useful properties (increased wear resistance, purity, protection against corrosion).
Such oils are suitable for operation in the most modern engines and in extreme operating conditions (low and high temperatures, high pressure, etc.).
Synthetic oil, unlike mineral, is made on the basis of directional chemical synthesis. In the process of its production, crude oil, which is the basic element, is distilled, and then processed to basic molecules.
Further, based on them, the base oil is obtained in which additives are added so that the final product has exceptional characteristics.
Synthetic Oil Properties
Graph of oil viscosity versus mileage
A feature of synthetic oil is that it retains its properties for a long time. After all, they are set at the stage of chemical synthesis. In its process, “directed” molecules are created that provide them.
The properties of synthetic oils include: high thermo-oxidative stability, high viscosity index,
high performance at low temperatures, low evaporation, low coefficient of friction.
The composition of synthetic oil
Synthetic motor or transmission oil consists of components of several classes:
esters (reaction products of organic acids with alcohols).
Depending on the composition and conditions of chemical reactions, the oils are divided into the following types – ether, hydrocarbon, polyorganosiloxane, polyalphaolefin, isoparaffin, halogen-substituted, chlorine and fluorine, polyalkylene glycol and so on.
It is important to know that many manufacturers assign their definition of synthetic oils conditionally.
This is due to the fact that in some countries the sale of synthetics is not taxed. In addition, the oils obtained by hydrocracking, sometimes also referred to as synthetic.
In some states, synthetic oils are considered mixtures containing up to 30% additives, in others – up to 50%. Many manufacturers simply buy base oils and additives from synthetic oil manufacturers. Mixing them, they get compositions that are sold in many countries around the world. Thus, the number of brands and actually synthetic oil grows from year to year.
Viscosity is the ability of an oil to remain on the surface of parts while maintaining fluidity.
In accordance with this standard, the designation consists of two numbers and the letter W. For example, 5W-40. The first digit indicates the coefficient of low-temperature viscosity:
● 0W – used at temperatures up to -35 ° C;
● 5W – used at temperatures up to -30 ° C;
● 10W – used at temperatures up to -25 ° C;
● 15W – used at temperatures up to -20 ° C